Modafinil (Brand: Provigil)
To increase concentration, get rid of drowsiness, improve memory and perception abilities, nootropics or psychostimulants are used. They stimulate brain activity, relieve sleep problems. One of the well-known drugs of this type is Modafinil.
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Instructions for use of Modafinil
The psychostimulant Modafinil is also known as diphenylmethylsulfinylacetamide. It belongs to the group of nootropics that treat narcolepsy, agitation or sleep apnea and other sleep disorders. The drug is used for violations of concentration, memory and perception disorders.
It is included in the group of dietary supplements, banned in a number of countries, is considered a sports doping.
Mechanism of action
The exact mechanism by which Modafinil interacts with brain transmitter neurons has not yet been elucidated. Presumably, the active substance increases the release of monoamines, catecholamines, dopamine and norepinephrine from synaptic clefts.
At the same time, the component increases the level of histamine in the hypothalamus, acting by analogy with amphetamine stimulants.
The drug is not addictive, reduces the potential for abuse compared to traditional stimulants, while maintaining the effect of the drug against drowsiness.
Indications for use
As a complex therapy, the drug is used as an addition to antidepressants. Indications for use are:
- suppression of the need for sleep;
- fight against general fatigue;
- pathological daytime sleepiness (hypersomnia);
- treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder;
- deterioration of short-term memory;
- sleep deprivation;
- deceleration of reaction and accuracy (used by the military, astronauts, pilots);
- interruptions in circadian rhythms, reduced quality of sleep.
Treatment for cocaine addiction
Experimentally, Modafinil can be used to treat cocaine addiction because their mechanisms of action on the brain are opposite. A double-blind study of the efficacy of the two components found that addicts increased the number of consecutive cocaine-free days, but there was no effect on the rate of change in non-use days.
The patent has not been received.
People even with a healthy weight can use the remedy to reduce appetite and lose weight. In monthly studies, users of the drug lose body weight, reduce calorie intake by 18% at 200 mg and 38% at 400 mg/day compared with placebo.
Scientists attribute the appetite-reducing effect to amphetamine-like effects, but the drug in question does not increase heart rate. On the other hand, one of the companies registered a drug under the patent for weight gain.
Cirrhosis of the liver
Chronic liver diseases, such as cirrhosis, lead to excessive fatigue and daytime sleepiness in patients. Modafinil will help to cope with them.
According to laboratory studies, two months of use of the drug helps to significantly reduce the symptoms of fatigue. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale was used to evaluate the analyses.
Treatment of mental disorders
Off-label, the drug may be used to treat psychiatric disorders. It restores cognitive abilities in people who have undergone chemotherapy, alleviates memory impairment, alleviates depression in bipolar affective disorder (but sometimes provokes a manic phase), reduces symptoms of neurological fatigue in multiple sclerosis.
In pediatrics, the drug is used to a limited extent for the treatment of attention deficit disorder in children and adolescents aged 6-17 years (it is prohibited in a number of countries due to dermatological toxicity, a patent has not been received).
Method of application and dosage
The standard dosage of tablets is 4 mg/kg of human weight. This is about 100-200 mg/day. This dose helps with targeted suppression of sleep or for giving wakefulness in the morning or at night.
For the treatment of narcolepsy or sleep apnea (breath-holding) during sleep, take 200-400 mg / day once or in the morning and at noon.
To increase physical performance, 100-400 mg per day is indicated. For the treatment of hypersomnia, take 200 mg once a day, in the morning.
Therapy for drowsiness associated with shift shifts involves the use of tablets at a dose of 200 mg one hour before the start of the shift.
Taking the drug in the afternoon is not recommended due to the long-term withdrawal from the body. Athletes should use the drug carefully because it can give a positive doping test result. The drug is not recommended for use during pregnancy and breastfeeding (lactation), due to possible harm to the fetus.